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Rosalind Franklin

1920-1958, England
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4 POINTS

– Made key contributions (which were not acknowledged at the time) to the discovery of the structure of DNA.
– After her death, 2 Nobel prizes were awarded to her collaborators.

Graphic by Ping Zhuwww.pingszoo.com
Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 – 16 April 1958[1]) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.[2] Although her works on coal and viruses were appreciated in her lifetime, her contributions to the discovery of […] read more

Sophia Kowalevski

1850-1891, Russia
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4 POINTS

– Did 3 times as much work to become the first European woman to earn a mathematics PhD.
– Taught herself math from textbooks.
– Made important original contributions to differential equations and mechanics.

Graphic by Simon Gurrwww.gurrillustration.com
Sofia Vasilyevna Kovalevskaya (Russian: Со́фья Васи́льевна Ковале́вская), born Sofia Vasilyevna Korvin-Krukovskaya (1850–1891), was a Russian mathematician who made noteworthy contributions to analysis, partial differential equations and mechanics. She was the first major Russian female mathematician and a pioneer for women in mathematics around the world. She was the first woman appointed to a full professorship […] read more

Hedy Lamarr

1914-2000, Austria/USA
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2 POINTS

– Co-invented spread spectrum and frequency hopping technology, which are now used in WiFi, GPS, and more.
– Was a glamorous Hollywood film star; having starred in 30 films.

Graphic by Ping Zhuwww.pingszoo.com
Hedy Lamarr (/ˈhɛdi/; born Hedwig Eva Maria Kiesler, November 9, 1914 – January 19, 2000)[a] was an Austrian and American film actress and inventor.[1] After an early and brief film career in Czechoslovakia that included the controversial film Ecstasy (1933 – in which Lamarr is very briefly seen swimming in the nude and running naked), she […] read more

Maria Sibylla Merian

1647-1717, Germany
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2 POINTS

– First to observe and document the metamorphosis of a butterfly.
– One of the most significant contributors to entomology.
– Was an accomplished botanical artist.

Graphic by Simon Gurrwww.gurrillustration.com
Maria Sibylla Merian (2 April 1647 – 13 January 1717) was a German-born naturalist and scientific illustrator, a descendant of the Frankfurt branch of the Swiss Merian family, founders of one of Europe’s largest publishing houses in the 17th century. Merian received her artistic training from her stepfather, Jacob Marrel, a student of the still life […] read more

Alice Ball

1892-1916, USA
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3 POINTS

– First woman and African-American Masters graduate from the University of Hawaii.
– Developed a leprosy treatment that was still in use until the 1940s.
– However, after her death, the president of the university took credit for her treatment.

Graphic by Shannon Wrightshannon-wright.com
Alice Augusta Ball (July 24, 1892 – December 31, 1916) was an African American chemist who developed an injectable oil extract that was the most effective treatment for leprosy until the 1940s.[1] She was also the first woman and first African American to graduate from the University of Hawaii with a master’s degree.[2] Early life […] read more

Chien-Shiung Wu

1912-1997, China/USA
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4 POINTS

– The “Wu experiment” disproved conservation of parity: thought to be a law of nature.
– Worked on the Manhattan Project, and made significant contributions to radioactivity research.
– Was a fierce advocate of social justice in her later years.

Graphic by Simon Gurrwww.gurrillustration.com
Chien-Shiung Wu (simplified Chinese: 吴健雄; traditional Chinese: 吳健雄; pinyin: Wú Jiànxióng; May 31, 1912 – February 16, 1997) was a Chinese-American experimental physicist who made significant contributions in the field of nuclear physics. Wu worked on the Manhattan Project, where she helped develop the process for separating uranium metal into uranium-235 and uranium-238 isotopes by gaseous […] read more