Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the familyDrosophilidae. The species is known generally as the common fruit fly or vinegar fly. Starting with Charles W. Woodworth‘s proposal of the use of this species as a model organism, D. melanogaster continues to be widely used for biological research in studies of genetics,physiology, microbial pathogenesis, and life history evolution. It is typically used because it is an animal species that is easy to care for, has four pairs of chromosomes, breeds quickly, and lays many eggs. D. melanogaster is a common pest in homes, restaurants, and other occupied places where food is served.
Flies belonging to the family Tephritidae are also called “fruit flies”. This can cause confusion, especially in Australia and South Africa, where the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata is an economic pest.
(From: Wikipedia, June 2016)